Recent news headlines have made for grim reading. The ICT sector’s energy consumption is in the rise.
So is ICT bad for the environment? As the world goes digital, we can expect the ICT industry’s energy consumption to keep growing. There will also be some side effects, and they should rightly be examined, especially through the lens of sustainability. But let’s pause for a moment and put these developments in a broader perspective: ICT has a hugely net positive impact on the health of our planet.
Climate change does not respect state borders, let alone organizational boundaries. To understand it, and to tackle it, we need to approach it with a systemic mindset. When one activity is changed, it changes others and so on. We need to speed up towards a low carbon economy by stopping and changing our activities. The changes, like ICT and digitalization, enabled changes do have a footprint too. The question is, is the new way greener enough than the old way?
Extensive research published in 2015 by GeSi, the Global eSustainability Initiative, estimated that emissions avoided through the use of ICT are nearly ten times greater than the emissions generated by deploying it. Granted, it would be good to have a fresher macro analysis to hand right now, but those numbers still speak loud and clear.
The sector’s reputation of course also depends on how well individual ICT companies manage their dual agenda. Customers’ digital business renewal should result in a lower CO2 footprint for the customer, i.e. a positive handprint for the ICT partner. On the other hand, they must keep their footprint as low as possible, align with the Paris agreement by using the best available technologies and renewable energy. Not every ICT company handles this dual responsibility well.
Fortunately, at Tieto, we can be substantially encouraged by our efforts. Consider the example of our data centres. When our customers move data from their own physical servers to cloud in our data centres, electricity consumption can be cut by as much as 90%. How is this possible? Firstly, think of it as pooling resources¬ – just as carpooling, or public transportation is greener than using our cars. The cloud is the ICT world's public transportation, and using one is much more efficient than your dedicated environment.
Large data centres must use low carbon solutions for cooling to reduce unit consumption. For example, at Tieto, the servers are cooled using district cooling. Hot and cold aisles ensure we can efficiently collect the heat generated by the servers and recycle it back to the district heat network. In 2017, we heated around 800 homes in the city of Espoo with this recycled heat. This benefit is not even shown on the PUE (power usage effectiveness) figures often used to measure and compare the efficiency of data centres.
On the other side of the dual agenda, we need to think about what are the systems and stored data used for. The goal should be that the use is greener than the old alternative. At Tieto, we reported our carbon handprint for the first time in 2011 and have since experimented with further quantification of our environmental impact. In other words, through several rounds of trial and error, we have strengthened our capability to define the scope, collect data and evaluate the attractiveness of customer projects from an environmental perspective. From all of this work, we have learned that:
Companies and consumers alike can cut their CO2 footprints by automating banking, insurance and accounting processes. This means, for example, banking online and choosing to receive invoices and letters in digital format. In 2017, Tieto's customers avoided roughly 75 kilotons of CO2 through the use of these services. In short, our carbon handprint is larger than the carbon footprint from our operations.
When you think of what’s possible just by changing everyday processes, the mind boggles as to what will be possible through innovation – not only in healthcare or banking but every industry, including the energy sector itself. Indeed, as digitalization gathers pace, there are plenty of reasons to be optimistic about the role of ICT in helping in the fight against climate change. There are no options – instead of gambling with the planet; we need to take the lead and perform our role the best we can!
Maija has worked as a Senior Sustainability Manager in a global role in Tieto. She is enthusiastic about the opportunities digitalization brings for sustainable development. She is currently focusing on CO2 handprint and positive socio-economic impacts of IT services. Along with ethics and sustainability, Maija believes in empathy and compassion and is helping others reach their full potential through coaching.